3rd Grade MULTIPLICATION Standards
3.1 Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to:
- A. Apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace.
- B. Use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution.
- C. Select tools, including real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve problems.
- D. Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations, including symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate.
- E. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.
- F. Analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas.
- G. Display, explain, and justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication.
3.4 Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to develop and use strategies and methods for whole number computations in order to solve problems with efficiency and accuracy. The student is expected to:
- E. Represent multiplication facts by using a variety of approaches such as repeated addition, equal-sized groups, arrays, area models, equal jumps on a number line, and skip counting; Supporting Standard.
3.5 Algebraic reasoning. The student applies mathematical process standards to analyze and create patterns and relationships. The student is expected to:
- C. Describe a multiplication expression as a comparison such as 3 x 24 represents 3 times as much as 24; Supporting Standard.
- D. Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers when the unknown is either a missing factor or product; Supporting Standard.
Operations & Algebraic Thinking:
Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.
- 3.OA.A.1 Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7.
Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.
- 3.OA.B.5 Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide.2 Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.)
Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.
- 3.OA.D.9 Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.