4th Grade FRACTIONS and ADDING FRACTIONS Standards
4.1 Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to:
- B. Use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution.
- C. Select tools, including real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve problems.
- D. Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations, including symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate.
- E. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.
- F. Analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas.
- G. Display, explain, and justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication.
4.3 Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to represent and generate fractions to solve problems. The student is expected to:
- A. Represent a fraction a/b as a sum of fractions 1/b, where a and b are whole numbers and b > 0, including when a > b; Supporting Standard.
- B. Decompose a fraction in more than one way into a sum of fractions with the same denominator using concrete and pictorial models and recording results with symbolic representations; Supporting Standard.
- C. Determine if two given fractions are equivalent using a variety of methods; Supporting Standard.
- D. Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators and represent the comparison using the symbols >, =, or <; Readiness Standard.
Number & Operations Fractions:
Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.
- 4.NF.A.1 Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.
- 4.NF.A.2 Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
Build fractions from unit fractions.
- 4.NF.B.3 Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.
- 4.NF.B.3.A Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.
- 4.NF.B.3.B Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.
- 4.NF.B.4. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.
- 4.NF.B.4.A Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4).
- 4.NF.B.4.B Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.)