Kindergarten ADDITION and SUBTRACTION Standards
K.1 Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to:
- B. Use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution.
- C. Select tools, including real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve problems.
- D. Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations, including symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate.
- E. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.
- F. Analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas.
- G. Display, explain, and justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication.
K.2 Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to understand how to represent and compare whole numbers, the relative position and magnitude of whole numbers, and relationships within the numeration system. The student is expected to:
- B. Read, write, and represent whole numbers from 0 to at least 20 with and without objects or pictures.
- F. Generate a number that is one more than or one less than another number up to at least 20.
- I. Compose and decompose numbers up to 10 with objects and pictures.
K.3 Number and operations. The student applies mathematical process standards to develop an understanding of addition and subtraction situations in order to solve problems. The student is expected to:
- A. Model the action of joining to represent addition and the action of separating to represent subtraction.
- C. Explain the strategies used to solve problems involving adding and subtracting within 10 using spoken words, concrete and pictorial models, and number sentences.
Counting & Cardinality:
Count to tell the number of objects.
- K.CC.B.4 Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.
- K.CC.B.4.C Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.
- K.CC.C.7 Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.
Operations & Algebraic Thinking:
Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.
- K.OA.A.1 Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.
- K.OA.A.2 Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.
- K.OA.A.3 Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).
- K.OA.A.4 For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.
Number & Operations in Base Ten:
Work with numbers 11-19 to gain foundations for place value.
- K.NBT.A.1 Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (such as 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.